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 عنوان المشاركة: Re: مقالات أجنبية لمن يحب الإطلاع
مشاركة غير مقروءةمرسل: الأحد أغسطس 14, 2022 7:46 pm 
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اشترك في: الاثنين ديسمبر 20, 2004 11:42 am
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Current Trends Shows Extinction Of Life On Earth Hasn’t Begun Yet, But Eventually Will



August 12, 2022Miscellaneous

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extinction life of earthCarl De Souza/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images


According to a new study, the present rate of extinction of life on Earth does not yet constitute a major extinction event, but current trends indicate that it will eventually. Many ecologists claim that we are experiencing a sixth mass extinction due to the amount of species that are currently in danger of going extinct; however, we are just seeing the beginning, and it will probably get much worse.

A recent analysis suggests that, at least in the near future the percentage of extinctions brought on by climate change-related rises in global temperature won’t equal that of a significant mass extinction event.

Scientists study the five major mass extinctions that occurred during Earth’s 4.5 billion-year history to better understand how climate change is currently harming world variety in ways which may be irreversible.

According to the Natural History Museum in London, a mass extinction occurs when a significant portion of the world’s biodiversity disappears faster than it can be recreated. This occurs during a geologically little period of time, under 2.8 million years (opens in new tab). Ecologists measure what’s been known as the “background rate” of extinction to comprehend what a “normal” extinction rate looks like because species can go extinct for a variety of reasons, according to the study’s the only author Kunio Kaiho, a professor emeritus at Department of Earth Science at the Tohoku University in Japan.

“Species extinctions in 1 million years correlate to the background rate,” says Kaiho. Kaiho explained that a greater rate, such as “more than 10% species extinction in a small time period (e.g., hundreds of years), is a big occurrence.”

However, because fossil records frequently overrepresent larger, more numerous species, evaluating the background rate of extinction for previous epochs can be “really tricky,” according to David Storch, a professor in Department of Ecology at the Charles University in Prague who wasn’t involved in the new study. The pace of extinction today, however, is “approximately two orders of magnitude more than the average rate of extinction,” according to Storch.

More than 60 percent of species are lost during major mass extinctions, according to Kaiho. Minor mass extinction events, on the other hand, “occurred more frequently.” In a new study that was released on July 22 in the journal Biogeosciences, Kaiho makes the case that although climate change increases extinction rates, the current rate does not yet meet the strict criteria for a mass extinction event.

The Ordovician-Silurian extinction, which occurred just around 440 million years ago, Late Devonian extinction, which occurred approx 365 million years ago, the Permian-Triassic extinction, which occurred approximately 253 million years ago, the Triassic-Jurassic extinction, which occurred roughly 201 million years ago, and Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction were the previous 5 main mass extinction events (around 66 million years ago). According to Kaiho, these occurrences have also been linked to significant alterations in the Earth’s climate, including variations in surface temperature, acid rain, ozone depletion, decreased sunlight, desertification, soil erosion, and a decrease in ocean oxygen. However, Storch believes that rather than global warming or cooling, variations in atmospheric and oceanic chemistry were more significant in these extinctions.

“The rate of extinction may be a result of the other worldwide changes that occurred at that time,” Storch said of the most recent mass extinctions. “The climatic change reported during these extinctions may not be the only cause of the extinctions.”

Climate changes that followed previous mass extinctions were swift and severe because they were brought on by volcanic eruptions and, in the case of Cretaceous catastrophe, an asteroid strike. In the study, Kaiho makes the claim that, because “animals can relocate to survive during sluggish climate changes,” the rate of environmental change is more significant than the size of change alone in producing enormous extinction rates.

Scientists would have to see the extinction of 60 percent of species and 35 percent of genera for it to qualify as a catastrophic mass extinction event. However, the fact that an extinction of this size hasn’t been seen yet doesn’t imply it isn’t happening right now. In contrast to its predecessors, the 6th extinction is being caused by human-caused climate change. According to Kaiho’s paper, we are uncertain to witness extinction rates in the near future that fit the criteria for a major mass extinction event, but they may very well meet the criteria for a minor mass extinction because the pace of such climatic change is gradual rather than rapid and drastic.

According to Kaiho, “at least until 2500 in the worst scenario,” an increase in global temperatures of 9 degrees Celsius (16.2 degrees Fahrenheit) would be necessary for large mass extinctions to coincide with global warming. In the near future, we won’t witness an unexpected and massive loss of species, instead a slow and steady rate of species extinction that won’t result in the loss of 60% of the earth’s species, Kaiho authored in the study. This is due to rate of species extinction changes in linearly with changes in global surface temperatures.

Numerous ecologists have provided an essential qualification to these findings, stating that the current rate of extinction is simply an estimate and might be off. A study from January 2022, which was published in the journal Biological Reviews(opens in new tab), found that the number of species extinctions reported is greatly understated because it heavily favours mammals and birds while ignoring many invertebrates. According to David Storch, other human-driven activities such as habitat alteration due to deforestation as well as pollution, overhunting, and the introduction of non-native species are currently driving the current rate of species extinction much more so than increasing average global temperatures.

https://scienceatom.com/2022/08/current ... ally-will/

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 عنوان المشاركة: Re: مقالات أجنبية لمن يحب الإطلاع
مشاركة غير مقروءةمرسل: الاثنين أغسطس 15, 2022 7:39 pm 
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The Stunning New Kite From Startup Can Pull Energy From The Sky



August 12, 2022Innovation

صورة

kiteKite-powered wind energy
kitecraft



What if you could literally extract energy from the sky? Several kite power companies are attempting and succeeding in this endeavour.

They claim that the new technology has numerous advantages.

“It’s less expensive to manufacture, less expensive to transport, and more efficient,” Ars Technica reports. Florian Bauer is the co-CEO and CTO of Kitekraft, a Munich-based company developing a kite power system. He claims that the carbon footprint is also much smaller. “With all of those benefits, why would anyone build a conventional wind turbine?”
How airborne wind works

How does the technology known as airborne wind work? KiteMill, one such company, describes the process in three steps:

The kite

The kite is a special designed aircraft made of composite materials. It has a rigid structure and is built to withstand high-speed winds. It has the shape of a sailplane and only requires four propellers for takeoff and landing. Once in the air, the kite stays aloft by gliding effortlessly on air currents. The kite is designed to move quickly and easily while adding a high tractive force on the tether.

The tether

The kite is attached to the ground by a tether. This tether transfers the kite’s pull force to the ground-station generator. It is made of braided polyethylene fibres chosen for their unique endurance capabilities. These, in turn, provide the smallest diameter for the tether, which is critical for obtaining energy from kite turbines. The tether’s material is durable and can withstand exposure to various environmental conditions such as moisture & UV light.

The ground station

The ground station converts tractive force from tether to electricity. This electricity is then fed into the power grid. The generator is connected to a winch in the ground station, which reels in and out the kite. The control system, which is also located in the ground station, ensures the effectiveness and safety of every flight. It ensures optimal energy production by controlling the kite and the winch. Sensors mounted on the aircraft provide data points for the control system to steer & balance the aircraft. The control system enables the autonomous operation of Kitemill’s entire solution and the subsequent energy production.
Not yet sufficiently developed

Airborne wind is still in its infancy, and if it is to progress further, it will have to over come many hurdles that it is safe and reliable, and that it does not cause noise pollution.

Currently, none of the kite companies have produced enough energy to compete with other renewable energy sources in megawatt scale. This doesn’t meanthat they won’t.

The technology is based on sound scientific principles and has a bright future. Could we soon be flying kites to power our lives?

https://scienceatom.com/2022/08/the-stu ... m-the-sky/

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 عنوان المشاركة: Re: مقالات أجنبية لمن يحب الإطلاع
مشاركة غير مقروءةمرسل: الأربعاء أغسطس 17, 2022 7:45 pm 
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These Snake-Like Robots Could Be Used To Save Lives In Surgery



August 14, 2022Health, Innovation

snake robotsSnake Robot
Source : ieee

صورة


Engineers appear to take a lot of inspiration from snakes when it comes to robotics. We’ve previously brought you snake robots that repair pipelines on the ocean floor, snake-inspired machines that burrow through sand & soil, and snake-like robotics that could even be used in emergencies.
Slender, flexible, and extensible robots

According to a press release from the University of Toronto Mississauga, a team led by Jessica Burgner-Kahrs, director of the Continuum Robotics Lab, is now developing very slender, flexible, and extensible robots that could be used by doctors to save lives. They accomplish this by accessing difficult-to-reach areas.

“Think about a neurosurgeon who has to remove a brain tumour. “Using a traditional, rigid surgical tool, “The surgeon must reach the cancerous mass by following a straight path into the brain and risk poking through – and damaging – vital tissue,” the researchers write in a press release.

“Burgner-Kahrs imagines a day when one of her snake-like robots, guided by a surgeon, could take a winding path around vital tissue while still reaching the precise surgical site.” Brain tumours that were previously inoperable may suddenly become operable.”

صورة

Snake-like robots could be used in surgery to save lives.
Source :University of Toronto

This is no small accomplishment, and it has the potential to revolutionise the medical industry. The researchers are even developing semi-autonomous models that will one day be able to guide themselves.

Although the surgeons would still need to direct the robots, the machines may make use of sensors to avoid obstacles in their path. Surgery would be simpler and safer thanks to the invention.
3 questions guide the researchers’ work

Burgner-Kahrs says she guides her work to answer three questions in order to achieve this lofty goal:

How can we programme continuum robots to move more precisely through constrained and tortuous environments?
How can we create a more natural interface between humans and robots? Is it possible to create a fully autonomous robot?
How can we use multiple continuum robots in tandem to collaboratively complete a task?

Her team and the researchers are also experimenting with new types of snake robots that are more dexterous & extensible. One recent model is origami-inspired, which means it’s very light and can elongate up to ten times longer than other designs. This makes it ideal for use in search and rescue applications.

Snake robots, obviously, can come in a variety of shapes & sizes, with a wide range of applications. This implies that their potential is not limited to a single industry. Indeed, the advancement of these multipurpose machines has the potential to transform our lives in the future by simplifying many complex tasks.

https://scienceatom.com/2022/08/these-s ... n-surgery/

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 عنوان المشاركة: Re: مقالات أجنبية لمن يحب الإطلاع
مشاركة غير مقروءةمرسل: الخميس مايو 25, 2023 2:34 pm 
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Ex-CIA Pilot Said NASA Landed On Mars In 1966 & Its Former Employee Saw Humans There In 1979 (Video)


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A woman named “Jackie” called on Coast to Coast AM, an American radio station, claiming she was the former NASA employee who managed to see humans on Mars in 1979. This statement sparked rumors of a “secret space program” that is kept hidden from the public.

Jackie said she had seen a man in a spacesuit in a live broadcast from Mars, but this information is concealed by NASA authorities. She claimed to be part of a team of specialists processing information from the Viking, the first Mars rover to send images from the surface of Mars to Earth. (Source)

https://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech ... z3KZnIiooU

“I wonder if you could solve a 27-year-old mystery for me,’ she asked the presenter. ‘That old Viking rover was running around. Then I saw two men in space suits – not the bulky suits we normally used, but they looked protective. They came over the horizon walking to the Viking Explorer.”

The Vikings 1 and 2 landed in 1975 and 1976 and sent back the first data on the surface of Mars, including the apparent absence of extraterrestrial life. NASA claimed that no traces of life were seen there, the Vikings found all the elements necessary for life on Earth. Carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen, and

phosphorus were present on Mars.

Jackie vowed that 6 other NASA employees witnessed this event with her. When those people tried to tell everyone about what they had seen and tried to leave the room, they found out that the front door was locked and the paper was hung on the door window so that no one else could look into it or enter. Of course, so far none of those 6 alleged employees have contacted Jackie to confirm her words.

John Lear: Secret Missions To Moon & Mars

Former CIA pilot John Lear and former Lockheed L-1011 Captain also said that NASA astronauts flew to Mars in 1966. Moreover, Lear believed that astronauts had been preparing for this mission especially long. They introduced certain drugs into the body, allowing people to adapt to Martian climatic conditions. Allegedly, those astronauts could breathe rarefied Martian air, so NASA had the opportunity to launch humans on the red planet for a longer time.

For those who do not know, John Lear was the son of Bill Lear, who founded Lear Jet in 1962. So, there is no doubt that he would have sensitive information related to secret technology and extraterrestrial activities.

During his interview with Coast to Coast AM radio program, Lear had given statements that could be hard for anybody to digest. He said that in 1953, a UFO crashed with an extraterrestrial named EBE 3, who helped the US government to build spacecraft with alien technology. Then he said that in 1962, the craft with incredible speed was built that carry passengers and take to Moon in just 60 minutes. In 1966, NASA had a trip to Mars. What’s more, “humans there were adapted to breathe in the thin atmosphere.”

Lear said: “The population of Mars is around 600 million and they are exactly like us.”

He claimed that his father was involved in anti-gravity technology programs which were highly secret. According to him, everything we know about Moon is a lie. In the 70s, NASA began destroying photographs taken by Apollo 8, 10, and 11, in which it was possible to see the cities, bases, pipes, roads, vegetation, lights, mining, and a nuclear reactor.

Apart from John Lear, there are other US officials who made similar statements. Philip J Corso, a former US Army officer said that Grey aliens, also referred to as Zeta Reticulans were not really aliens, but bio machines specially created to work on other planets. To prove his claim, Corso described what he had seen during the autopsy. He wrote that those aliens were without any digestive system, and their bodies were linked to the spacecraft as if they were controlled through ships.

He wrote further that those extraterrestrial biological objects, as indicated in the autopsy reports, were humanoid robots specially designed to travel long distances in space and time. There are dozens of such stories including Project SERPO.

Nigel Watson, the author of the Haynes UFO Investigations Manual, noticed a recent surge in reports about secret space missions, which reminds him of the controversial Project Serpo.

Metro wrote, “In November 2005, a contact called ‘anonymous’, who said they worked for the US Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) started sending information about an extraordinary alien exchange program, called Project Serpo. Basing his claims on a 3,000-page document written in the late 1970s, he boldly claimed that six aliens were recovered from the Roswell crash.”

“Claims that aliens living and/or dead were recovered from the Roswell crash are nothing new, but in this case it was stated that an alien survivor from the crash, called EBE 1, helped to organize twelve specially trained people to visit his home planet Serpo in the Zeta Reticuli solar system. This mission occurred in 1965 and they remained there until 1978. During their stay two of them died, two remained on the planet, and the rest, after returning to Earth, have died because of the high levels of radiation they were exposed to on Serpo.’ ‘Bill Ryan who posted these claims online concluded that ‘the Serpo story is a mixture of disinformation (i.e. truth mixed with added fictional elements) and naturally occurring compounded errors…surrounding a core of extraordinary truth.”


https://newstangail24.com/its-former-em ... e_vignette



قال طيار سابق في وكالة المخابرات المركزية إن ناسا هبطت على سطح المريخ في عام 1966 ورأى موظفها السابق بشرًا هناك عام 1979 (فيديو)


استدعت امرأة تدعى "جاكي" من Coast to Coast AM ، وهي محطة إذاعية أمريكية ، مدعية أنها كانت موظفة ناسا السابقة التي تمكنت من رؤية البشر على سطح المريخ في عام 1979. أثار هذا البيان شائعات عن "برنامج فضائي سري" تم إخفاؤه من الجمهور.

قالت جاكي إنها شاهدت رجلاً يرتدي بدلة فضاء في بث مباشر من المريخ ، لكن هذه المعلومات أخفتها سلطات ناسا. ادعت أنها جزء من فريق من المتخصصين الذين يعالجون المعلومات من Viking ، أول مركبة فضائية على المريخ ترسل صورًا من سطح المريخ إلى الأرض. ( المصدر )

https://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech ... z3KZnIiooU

سألت المذيع "أتساءل عما إذا كان بإمكانك حل لغز لي 27 عامًا". كانت العربة الجوالة القديمة من الفايكنج تدور في الأرجاء. ثم رأيت رجلين يرتديان بذلات فضائية - ليست البدلات الضخمة التي نستخدمها عادةً ، لكنهما بدتا وقائيتين. لقد جاؤوا عبر الأفق مشيًا إلى مستكشف الفايكنج ".

هبط الفايكنج 1 و 2 في عامي 1975 و 1976 وأرسلوا البيانات الأولى على سطح المريخ ، بما في ذلك الغياب الواضح للحياة خارج كوكب الأرض. زعمت وكالة ناسا أنه لم يتم رؤية أي آثار للحياة هناك ، فقد وجد الفايكنج جميع العناصر الضرورية للحياة على الأرض. الكربون والنيتروجين والهيدروجين والأكسجين و

كان الفوسفور موجودًا على سطح المريخ.

تعهدت جاكي أن 6 من موظفي ناسا شهدوا هذا الحدث معها. عندما حاول هؤلاء الأشخاص إخبار الجميع بما شاهدوه وحاولوا مغادرة الغرفة ، اكتشفوا أن الباب الأمامي مغلق وأن الورقة معلقة على نافذة الباب حتى لا يتمكن أي شخص آخر من النظر إليها أو الدخول إليها. بالطبع ، لم يتصل أي من هؤلاء الموظفين الستة المزعومين بجاكي لتأكيد كلماتها حتى الآن.

جون لير: البعثات السرية إلى القمر والمريخ

قال جون لير ، طيار وكالة المخابرات المركزية السابق وكابتن لوكهيد L-1011 السابق ، إن رواد فضاء ناسا سافروا إلى المريخ في عام 1966. علاوة على ذلك ، اعتقد لير أن رواد الفضاء كانوا يستعدون لهذه المهمة لفترة طويلة. لقد أدخلوا بعض الأدوية في الجسم ، مما سمح للناس بالتكيف مع الظروف المناخية للمريخ. يُزعم أن رواد الفضاء هؤلاء يمكن أن يتنفسوا هواء المريخ المخلخل ، لذلك أتيحت لناسا الفرصة لإطلاق البشر على الكوكب الأحمر لفترة أطول.

بالنسبة لأولئك الذين لا يعرفون ، كان جون لير ابن بيل لير ، الذي أسس Lear Jet في عام 1962. لذلك ، ليس هناك شك في أنه سيكون لديه معلومات حساسة تتعلق بالتكنولوجيا السرية والأنشطة خارج كوكب الأرض.

خلال مقابلته مع برنامج إذاعي من Coast to Coast AM ، أدلى لير بتصريحات يصعب على أي شخص استيعابها. قال إنه في عام 1953 ، تحطم جسم غامض مع كائن فضائي يدعى EBE 3 ، والذي ساعد الحكومة الأمريكية على بناء مركبة فضائية بتكنولوجيا غريبة. ثم قال إنه في عام 1962 ، تم بناء المركبة بسرعة لا تصدق والتي تحمل الركاب وتنطلق إلى القمر في 60 دقيقة فقط. في عام 1966 ، قامت ناسا برحلة إلى المريخ. علاوة على ذلك ، "تم تكييف البشر هناك للتنفس في الغلاف الجوي الرقيق."

قال لير: "يبلغ عدد سكان المريخ حوالي 600 مليون وهم تمامًا مثلنا".

وادعى أن والده كان متورطًا في برامج تقنية مضادة للجاذبية كانت سرية للغاية. وفقا له ، كل ما نعرفه عن القمر هو كذبة. في السبعينيات ، بدأت ناسا في تدمير الصور التي التقطتها أبولو 8 و 10 و 11 ، حيث كان من الممكن رؤية المدن والقواعد والأنابيب والطرق والنباتات والأضواء والتعدين والمفاعل النووي.

باستثناء جون لير ، هناك مسؤولون أميركيون آخرون أدلوا بتصريحات مماثلة. قال فيليب جيه كورسو ، ضابط سابق في الجيش الأمريكي ، إن الكائنات الفضائية الرمادية ، التي يشار إليها أيضًا باسم Zeta Reticulans ، لم تكن كائنات فضائية حقًا ، ولكنها آلات بيولوجية تم إنشاؤها خصيصًا للعمل على كواكب أخرى. لإثبات ادعائه ، وصف كورسو ما رآه أثناء تشريح الجثة. لقد كتب أن هؤلاء الأجانب كانوا بدون أي جهاز هضمي ، وأن أجسادهم كانت مرتبطة بالمركبة الفضائية كما لو تم التحكم بهم من خلال السفن.

وكتب كذلك أن تلك الأجسام البيولوجية خارج كوكب الأرض ، كما هو مبين في تقارير التشريح ، كانت روبوتات بشرية مصممة خصيصًا للسفر لمسافات طويلة في المكان والزمان. هناك العشرات من هذه القصص بما في ذلك Project SERPO.

لاحظ نايجل واتسون ، مؤلف كتاب Haynes UFO Investments Manual ، زيادة حديثة في التقارير حول مهمات الفضاء السرية ، والتي تذكره بمشروع Serpo المثير للجدل.

كتب مترو ، "في تشرين الثاني (نوفمبر) 2005 ، بدأت جهة اتصال تُدعى" مجهول "، والتي قالت إنها تعمل لصالح وكالة استخبارات الدفاع الأمريكية (DIA) ، في إرسال معلومات حول برنامج تبادل فضائي استثنائي ، يُدعى Project Serpo. استنادًا إلى مزاعمه على وثيقة من 3000 صفحة كُتبت في أواخر السبعينيات ، ادعى بجرأة أنه تم انتشال ستة كائنات فضائية من تحطم روزويل ".

"الادعاءات بأن الفضائيين الأحياء و / أو الأموات تم انتشالهم من تحطم روزويل ليست شيئًا جديدًا ، ولكن في هذه الحالة ذكر أن أحد الناجين من الحادث ، المسمى EBE 1 ، ساعد في تنظيم اثني عشر شخصًا مدربًا بشكل خاص لزيارة كوكب موطنه سيربو في النظام الشمسي زيتا ريتيكولي. حدثت هذه المهمة في عام 1965 وبقوا هناك حتى عام 1978. أثناء إقامتهم ، توفي اثنان منهم ، وبقي اثنان على الكوكب ، وتوفي الباقون ، بعد عودتهم إلى الأرض ، بسبب المستويات العالية من الإشعاع التي تعرضوا لها على سيربو. ". "خلص بيل رايان الذي نشر هذه الادعاءات على الإنترنت إلى أن" قصة سيربو هي مزيج من المعلومات المضللة (أي الحقيقة الممزوجة بعناصر خيالية مضافة) والأخطاء المركبة التي تحدث بشكل طبيعي ... تحيط بنواة من الحقيقة غير العادية. "



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روابط ذات صلة عن المريخ بما فيها رابط الديلي ميل الذى كان فى عام 2014 ثم تم عمل تحديث له فى 2016 :


https://www.msobieh.com/akhtaa/viewtopi ... 9&start=60


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